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Tajiken Kantu Inprobisatua

Tajikeraz inprobisatutako kantu mota ugari daude. Tajikistan, Uzbekistan eta Afganistanen ez ezik, beste hainbat lurraldeetan zehar ere hedatzen dira tajikak (Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Turkmenistan; Errusia; Pakistan eta Txinan).

Inprobisatzen diren kantu mota batzuk:

Marsia:
Hil den pertsonari buruz inprobisatutako kantuak dira. Lurraldearen arabera aldatzen dira kantuon ezaugarriak. Gizon eta emakumeek banatuta egiten dituzte negar-kantuok. Kantariak "gûyanda" deitzen dira lurralde batzuetan. Tajikistan iparraldean, eta Uzbekistaneko tajiken artean, emakumeen funtzioa da. "Gûyanda"-k inprobisatuz kantatzen ditu bertsoak eta bertso bakoitzaren bukaeran beste emakumeek negar-soinuz erantzuten diete.

Bayt:
Bi lerrotako bertsoak dira. Seguruenik, "Bayt-barak" deritzon jolasagatik, oso zabalduak daude Tajikistan osoan zehar. Joko honetan bi taldek parte hartzen dute, batak, bayt bat osatzen du eta besteak bayt horren azken hizkiarekin hasi behar du bere erantzuna. Lan giroan, emakume eta gizonen arteko bayt elkarrizketak ere ematen ziren ("bayt-monî"). Ghonchi lurraldean bayt bertsoak kantatutak edo errezitatuak izan daitezke, musikaren laguntzaz edo gabe emanak. Gaur egun inprobisatzen ote diren ez da ziurra.

Badeha:
Emakume eta gizonaren arteko elkarrizketa bat da, maitasun gaiei buruz, antzerki eran performatuta. Inprobisatuak izan arren, memorizatutako bertsoak ere kantatzen dira.

Iturria: Rahmoni, Ravshan. The Popular Literature of the Tajiks. Oral Literature of Iranian Languages: Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik: Companion Volume II: History of Persian Literature A. I.B.Tauris, 2010. Chapter 12.
There are many types of improvised verses that are sung in the Tajik language. In addition to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, the Tajik people also live in many other regions, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Russia, Pakistan and China.

Some types of improvised songs:

"Marsia" (dirges):
They are improvised songs about someone who has just died. The characteristics of the songs vary from region to region. Men and women sing their laments separately. In some areas singers are known as "gûyanda". In the north of Tajikistan, and among the Tajiks of Uzbekistan, being a "gûyanda" is a woman’s task. The "gûyanda" improvises songs of mourning and after each couplet the other women respond by crying out in anguish.

"Bayt":
They have two-line verses and are extremely popular all over Tajikistan, probably thanks to the game of "bayt-barak", which is played by two groups. One group composes a line ("bayt") and the other has to take the last letter in that line and compose a reply starting with that letter. Men and women often improvise bayt exchanges while working ("bayt-monî"). In the region of Ghonchi, bayts are sung or recited, either with or without musical accompaniment. Today it is uncertain whether or not they are improvised.

"Badeha":
A conversational exchange between a man and a woman about love, often in the form of a play. Even though they are extemporaneous, some memorised verses are also song.

Source: Rahmoni, Ravshan. The Popular Literature of the Tajiks. Oral Literature of Iranian Languages: Kurdish, Pashto, Balochi, Ossetic, Persian and Tajik: Companion Volume II: History of Persian Literature A. I.B.Tauris, 2010. Chapter 12.

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Adierazpidea
Tajiken Kantu Inprobisatua
Hizkuntza
Indoeuroparra , Indoiraniarra , Tajikera
Hizkuntzaren egoera
Osasuntsu
Kokapen geografikoa
Tajikistan
Beste kokapen geografikoak
Uzbekistan
Egungo egoera
Ziurtatzeko